Artikel Umum
Developing the Ability of Understanding and Selfconfidence the Mathematical Students with VBA for Excel
Martin Bernard^{1}, Eka Senjayawati^{2}
^{1.2} IKIP Siliwangi, Jl. General Sudirman, Cimahi, No. 40526, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Email: pamartin23rnard@gmail.com
Email: senja_eka@yahoo.co.id
ABSTRACT
Visual Basic Application for Excel is a simple program language and has the power to process data quickly, let alone the utilization of math functions in Microsoft Excel can help work on Excel display more interactive so that teachers can create props inside Excel. The advantages of Microsoft Excel compared to mathematical software are the many math functions and images available in the form of shapes or pictures.
With the availability of VBA, math and image functions in Microsoft Excel, teachers can design the creation of media related to mathematics learning especially helping to develop the ability of junior high school students who have difficulty connecting mathematics lessons with basic mathematics knowledge requirements. In general, that most students in Indonesia have not solved mathematical problems, therefore, by using VBA for Excel the ability of junior high school students to improve in the usual way significantly with a ttest with 0.006 <0.05 and there is an association between Trust selfcomfidence student with students’ mathematical comprehension skills with a contingency value with a significant amount of 0.016 <0.05 with a contingency coefficient of 0.525 including a moderate association.
Keywords: VBA for Excel, Excel Microsoft, Ability to Understand, Self Confidence
Introduction
Mathematics is one of the most essential foundations so that the subjects are taught from an early age to college, it can not be denied that all circles much need mathematics without being limited by age, because with mathematics, human beings can develop logical, analytical, systematic, critical, and creative thinking skills, as well as cooperative abilities applied in daily inhalation (Bernard, 2015: 198).
But many obstacles faced by students facing math problems, because of the lack of skills prerequisite students that they should be able to master. And their tendency depends on the way the work process should be followed without understanding the actual storyline. The math subjects in the school cause this factor are monotonous and less varied in the use of instructional media, thus fewer interest students (Bernard, 2014: 425).
One that must be mastered by students as the key is to learn the concept of counting operations such as sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Or associate the mathematical functions that the student thinks are new material but which have actually been studied previously. So the difficulties of students not yet understand the mathematics to the next stage because it has not been able to associate the basic mathematics or the socalled prerequisites, this is in accordance with Astusi (2018: 69) that students in Indonesia are not accustomed to solving problems.
Another student’s difficulty is conveying mathematical symbols and identifying to distinguish symbols such as understanding about variable differences and constants, in fact, the linkage of this concept has been studied as to the set or may be analogous to other forms. Of course, this is needed by the media visually so that students understand from some examples. Benefits of mathematics learning media are petrified students who are concrete operational phase in understanding the material that is abstract or less able to be explained by using verbal language (Coal, 2017: 15). Media to be created must be in accordance with the achievement of mathematics subjects are being studied in the classroom.
To create mathematical media, it should be designed according to learning strategy about the effectiveness of time, space, and materials. Because it is not easy media can be made with a short, but not necessarily be useful for students, but the purpose of media provides convenience to students to understand the material so that during the process of mathematics, students are not dependent on the source text (Wijayanti & Khikmiyah, 2016)
Based on the utilization and the purpose of the media, that ICT is one technology that can be used as an alternative media. Because by using ICT, already provides images of various shapes and sizes so easily designed well. ICTbased media one of them is Microsoft Excel, and the software is rich in mathematical functions for data processing. Microsoft Excel also provides images such as Shapes, Picture, Graphics, and Diagrams, but at this time most people still connect the data processing cells with graphics. In fact, running Shapes, Picture, Graphs, and Diagrams into a dynamic form by using Visual Basic Application for Microsoft Excel.
According to Chotimah, Bernard, & Wulandari (2018: 4) that Visual Basic Application can create drawings that are designed into a more interactive mathematical tool, and also do not have to cost, and do not need much consideration to choose the material. And even the Visual Basic Application language has a language structure that is not so difficult because the word is a lot of high school students or as a science prerequisite for teachers.
The ease of Microsoft Excel software by using VBA, delivering students can compile or process the understanding to make the steps structured, it is agreed with Senjayawati & Bernard, (2018: 66) that the mathematical software can also solve the problem of the theorem or the definition of mathematics by composing until the destination results.
Research Methods The
Research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in cimahi city, and the selection of samples in two classes were 30 students of class VII A as an experimental class which was a classroom with VBAbased mathematics learning game for Microsoft Excel while class VII B consisted of 33 students as control class or classes that are learning in the normal way. Methods of research design with QuasiExperiments, as follows:
O X O (Sulaeman, 2018: 47)
————————
O O
O: Pretest / Posttest Ability Understanding
X: Using VBABased Games for Microsoft Excel
———–: Sample is not random
Result of Research
At the time of pretest, the experimental class and control class are given about the ability to understand about the equation of one variable, and the results obtained from both groups in table 1.
Table 1. Average Value and Standard deviation When Pretest
No  Class  Average  Standard Deviation 
1  Experiments  7.08  1.73 
2  Controls  7.48  1.84 
Table 1 shows that in the experimental class has an average value the 7.08 and the 7.48 control classes which mean the control class is higher than the experimental category. And seen the standard deviation, Experiment class 1.73 and control class 1.84, where for standard deviation of experiment class is smaller than control class, it means the value of spreading of experiment class data more evenly than control class, and for whether there is difference of mean of between experimental class and control class, the first step is whether the two grades of students of the course are normally distributed or not.
Table 2. Normal Test of Pretest


Class  KolmogorovSmirnov^{a}  ShapiroWilk  
Statistic  df  Sig.  Statistic  df  Sig.  
Value  Control Class  .139  29  .157  .922  29  .034 
Class Experiment  .147  32  .078  .955  32  .196  
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

In Table 2, for a normal test using the KolmogorovSmirnov, where the results of statistical values for a class of 0,139 controls, degrees freedom 29 and significant amount 0,157 and for an experimental class result of statistic value 0.147, a degree of freedom 32 and considerable value 0,78. since the significance level of the table is 0.05 then the two significant amounts for the control and experimental classes are greater than 0.05 meaning that the two data are normally distributed, then the homogeneous test will be continued to see whether the dispersion of values a gainst the mean is the same or not.
Table 3. Test of Mean Differences of Experiment Class and Control when Pretest


Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances  ttest for Equality of Means  
F  Sig.  t  df  Sig. (2tailed)  Mean Difference  Std. Error Difference  95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
Lower  Upper  
Value  Equal variances assumed  .416  .521  .850  60  .399  .389  .458  .527  1305 
Equal variances not assumed  .847  57.45  .400  .389  .847  .530  1,308 
From data table 3, shows that the value of the second F test of the data is 0.461 and the significant amount of 0.521 is greater than 0.05, meaning that the two data are homogeneous. To see the average difference between the two groups, taken from the ttest on the data having the same variance of 0.85 with the degrees of freedom 60 and the significant 2tailed value of 0.399. This means that the two average values are no different.
Table 4. Average Value and Standard Deviation At Postest
No  Class  Average  Standard Deviation 
1  Experiments  17.19  1.91 
2  Controls  16.03  1.56 
Table 4 shows the average grade of students at postest or at the time after given the average score for the experimental class 17.19 and the average for the control class 16.03 means that the average value of the experimental level is greater than the average value of the control class, while for the standard deviation value for the experimental class 1.91 and control class 1.56 and since the control class has a standard value smaller than the experimental level, then the scores of the students’ grade of control on the average value are more evenly than the experimental class. And to see the average difference between the two classes, both data must normally be tested.
Table 5. Normality Test at Postest


Class  KolmogorovSmirnov^{a}  ShapiroWilk  
Statistic  df  Sig.  Statistic  df  Sig.  
Value  ClassControl  .158  29  .054  .956  30  .249 
Experiment Class  .148  32  .071  .970  32  .512  
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction 
In Table 5, the statistical value used KolmogorovSmirnov for Control class 0.1458, degrees of freedom 32 and significant amount 0.071. For control class statistic value 0.158, degrees of freedom 29 and considerable value 0.054. Since both data have the considerable value greater than 0.05, then both data are the normal distribution and continued with the homogeneous test.
Table 6. Test of Mean Differences of Both Classes When Postets


Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances  ttest for Equality of Means  
F  Sig.  t  df  Sig. (2tailed)  Mean Difference  Std. Error Difference  95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
Lower  Upper  
Value  Equal variances assumed  1.124  .293  2.595  60  .012  1.154  .445  2.044  .264 
Equal variances not assumed  2.611  58.978  .011  1.154  .442  2,039  .270 
Table 6 shows that F test for both data is 1,124 with significant value 0,293 bigger than 0,05 meaning that both information is homogeneous, then continued with analysis of difference of average that is t test and got value 2,59, degree of freedom 60 and amount significant 0.012 for 2tailed while 1tailed to see that which grade is better, then the considerable value is divided into 2 into 0.006 (Uyanto, 2009: 153) less than 0.05, and according to table 4 that the average value of the experiment larger than the control class then the experimental level is better than the control class.
To see if there is an increase in pretest or early learning with postlearning then the NGain seen on each student based on table 1 and table 4 shows that both classes show an increase in mean value, then compare which is better N gain between two levels.
Table 7. Average Value and Standard Deviation NGain
No  Class  Average  Standard Deviation 
1  Experiments  0.77  0.24 
2  Controls  0.68  0.16 
In Table 7, that the average value of Ngain in the class the experiments were larger than the average Ngain values in the control class, and the standard deviation value of Ngain of the control class was smaller than that of the experimental Ngain class, meaning that the control group’s Ngain values were more evenly distributed than the experimental level. To see the difference in the average of the two classes especially for the normality test of the two data.
Table 8. NGain Normality Test


Class  KolmogorovSmirnov^{a}  ShapiroWilk  
Statistic  df  Sig.  Statistic  df  Sig.  
Value  ClassControl  .107  29  .200^{*}  .980  30  .837 
Experiment Class  .112  31  .200^{*}  .955  32  .200  
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.  
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction 
In Table 8, it shows that the statistical value using KolmogorovSmirnov for the experimental class is 0.112 and the control class is 0.107 with each degree of freedom 29 and 32 and has a significant amount of 0.200 greater than 0.05, meaning that the two data are typically distributed. And continued with a homogeneous test.
Table 9. Mean Differences Test N Gain


Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances  ttest for Equality of Means  
F  Sig.  t  df  Sig. (2tailed)  Mean Difference  Std. Error Difference  95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
Lower  Upper  
Value  Equal variances assumed  .419  .520  2557  60  .013  .09597  .03754  .17106  .02088 
Equal variances not assumed  2 566  59 842  .013  .09597  .03740  – .17078  .02117 
Table 9, shows the F test value of both data is 0.419 and a significant amount of 0.52 greater 0.05 means that the two average values of Ngain are homogeneous, followed by the test of average difference with using ttest, with t 2,557 value, degree of freedom 60 and significant amount of 2tailed 0.013, to see ttailed test result hence substantial result of t 2tailed ttest divided by equal to 0,0065 smaller than 0, 05 means that the average value of Ngain experiment better than the control class.
Viewed from the ability of students based on high ability, medium and low to the students’ assessment of the knowledge of understanding mathematics by using VBAassisted math games for Microsoft Excel.
Table 10. Association of Student Math Ability to Student Understanding


Ability of Mathematics  Total  
Low  Medium  High  
Understanding Ability  Low  1  3  2  6 
Medium  6  11  5  22  
High  0  4  0  4  
Total  7  18  7  32 
In table 10, it explains that there is 1 student who has low mathematics ability is also low on the strength of understanding, there are 3 students of moderate math skills but low comprehension ability, there are 2 students high ability in mathematics but low comprehension ability, there are 6 students low ability of math but ability of understanding of being, there are 11 students that ability of math and the mathematical knowledge of the agreement is also being, there are 5 students with high math ability but medium understanding ability, there are 4 students of medium math ability but high understanding ability. Means there is an increase of 85% of students have low capacity to have a moderate value, there is a decrease of 16.67% average ability of math has low comprehension ability, but an increase of 22.22% math ability has a high understanding ability. While high math ability 71.43% decline in the ability to moderate and 28.57% comprehension ability to lower the 20 highest value and lowest value 13.
Table 11. Value of Chi Square forAssociation.  
Value  df  Asymp Sig. (2sided)  
Pearson ChiSquare  4.040^{a}  4  .401 
Likelihood Ratio  5,475  4  .242 
LinearbyLinear Association  .224  1  .636 
N of Valid Cases  32  
a. 8 cells (88.9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .88. 
Table 11 explains the value of Chi Squares 4.04, 4 freedom counts with a significant amount of 0.401 greater than 0.05 meaning that there is no association between mathematical ability and students’ comprehension abilities.
Table 12. Association of Student Self Confidence Questionnaire with Understanding Skill Student


Questionnaire  Total  
Low  Medium  High  
Value  Low  1  3  1  5 
Medium  5  16  1  22  
High  0  1  4  5  
Total  6  20  6  32 
Table 12 explains that there is 1 student with low and ability low understanding, there are 3 students with moderate questionnaire but have low score, there are 2 students with high questionnaire but low comprehension ability, there are 5 students with low questionnaire but have medium understanding ability, there are 16 students have medium questionnaire and have medium ability, there is 1 students, with high questionnaire but medium understanding ability, there are 1 students with a medium questionnaire, there are 4 students with high questionnaire and high comprehension ability. Consistently 16.67% of students with low questionnaires and low comprehension skills, 80% of students with medium questionnaires and medium comprehension skills and 50% of students with high questionnaires and high comprehension skills.
Table 13. Contingency Questionnaire and Student Understanding Understanding


Value  Asymp. Std. Error^{a}  Approx. T^{b}  Approx. Sig.  
Nominal by Nominal  Contingency Coefficient  .016  .525  
Ordinalby Ordinal  Gamma  .255  .335  .729  .466 
Spearman Correlation  .169  .229  .940  .355^{c}  
interval by interval  Pearson’s R  .184  .214  1.024  .314^{c} 
N of Valid Cases  32  
a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.  
b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.  
c. Based on normal approximation. 
In table 13, explaining the contingency value of the association between students ‘selfconfidence questionnaires with students’ comprehension ability is obtained with a value of 0.525 is a moderate category and for a significant value of 0.016 less than 0.05 means that there is an association between students ‘selfconfidence and students’ understanding ability.
Discussion
Students have difficulty at the beginning of learning to determine the value of x from the equation on two segments. The cause of the students’ barriers from the seventh grade students has not mastered the basic prerequisites of mathematics ie students have not been able to share concepts, the properties of addition and multiplication operations such as commutative, distribution, identity, inverse and distribution.
Figure 1. Student Difficulties in the Counting Process
In Figure 1, the first grade of junior high school students is mistaken, the beginning, it is not appropriate to adjust the problem between the problem and the picture. Secondly, the multiplier counting process is correct but when the method determines the value of x, the student begins to get confused, seen when the student moves the 6x amount from the right and the left, as well as the number of the 12 from left to right, and the end result is less precise .
From the results of observation workmanship of 32 students, according to the way the process of calculating the mathematics of 10.64% student miscalculation process with the nature of the distribution, 54, 37% error students in the concept of comparison, 68.53% error students do sum and counting operations with properties identity, inverse. And 67.95% of students have not been able to relate between drawing and mathematical concepts.
Figure 2. Mathematics Game Design Game
In the first step, the researchers collected the results of workmanship data from 32 students, as a material consideration. The second step the researchers create a solution that can link between mathematical concepts with instructional media in accordance with the cost and time of manufacture. Judging from its utilization, the media of learning mathematics by using Microsoft Excelbased VBA more practical and efficient, because in the software already provides images with different shapes and sizes taken from Shapes in the Insert menu, in addition, the images can be taken from the Picture in Insert menu.
Figure 3. Designing a Picture of Math Game in Microsoft Excel The
Drawings designed according to the relation of the mathematical concept are the equations of one variable. By making a story of the difference of the twocar journey that has the difference of speed and distance difference, and the time specified describes as answer x. And to move the car depends on the equation of each, while the two frogs as observers to see the difference in the distance of the initial car and the difference in the distance of the car as it begins to move as the reason for moving the variables and numbers from one segment to the other, then the students answer the result of x whether same on the result of the answer when the car is moved, of all the commands will be connected using the Visual Basic language, then the code is written in Visual Basic Application for Microsoft Excel.
‘Create a time function
Sub time ()
‘ create sheet definition as worksheet in Microsoft Excel
Dim sheet As Worksheet
‘Make definitions for a, b and c as integers
Dim a As Integer
Dim b As Integer
Dim c As Integer
‘ enable sheet on sheet1 in Microsoft Excel
Set sheet = Worksheets (1)
‘ordered on cell AE2 to increment 1 when button is pressed
Range (“AE2”) = Range (“AE2”) + 1
‘ a is equal to cell in AE2
a = Range (“AE2” )
‘b is equal to the multiplication of the value of a with the value in cell H2
b = a * Range (“H2”)
‘ c equals the multiplication of the value of a with the value in cell H9
c = a * Range (“H9”)
‘ Running car1 on position of cell horizontally
sheet.Shapes (“mobil1”). Left = Cells (4, 10 + b + Range (“L2”)). Left
‘Runs mobil1 on cell position vertically
sheet.Shapes (“mobil1” ) .Top = Cells (4, 10 + b + Range (“L2”)). Top
‘Running mobil2 on cell position horizontally
sheet.Shapes (“mobil2”). Left = Cells (6, 10 + c + Range ( “L9”)). Left
‘Running mobil2 on cells position vertical
lembar.Shapes( “mobil2”). Top = Cells (6, 10 + c + Range ( “L9”)). Top
‘Closing time function
End Sub
One programming language code to make a game of mathematics is a command to run the car, according to the equation of one variable. This Visual Basic code will be associated with cells in Sheet1 in Microsoft Excel and inserted into one of the images as the driving button of the two cars.
‘Create function to create value added on variable x
Sub increment1 ()
‘ Make value on cell H2 increase 1 when button pressed
Range (“H2”) = Range (“H2”) + 1
‘Create condition based on value on cell H2
Select Case Range (“H2”)
‘If the value of the cell is equal to 1
Case 1
‘ And if the cell of L2 is greater than 0 then
If Range (“L2”)> 0 Then
‘Will be written on cell B2 by joining x + cell L2
Range (“B2”) = “x +” & Range (“L2”)
‘If not then
Else
‘ and on cell L2 equals 0 then
If Range (“L2”) = 0 Then
‘Will be written on cell B2 is x
Range (“B2”) = “x”
‘If not then
Else
‘ And if cell L2 is smaller 0 then
If Range (“L2”) <0 Then
‘Cell B2 will be written X and cell on L2
Range (“B2 “) =” x “& Range (” L2 “)
‘Closing function if the third section
End
If’Close the function if the second part
End If
‘Close the function if the first section
End
If’If the conditions in the cells H2 equal to 1
Case 1
‘And if cell H2 is less than 0 then
If Range ( “L2”)> 0 Then
‘Will be written on cell B2 by merging x + with the inscription on cell L2
Range (“B2”) = “x +” & Range (“L2”)
‘ if not then
Else
‘If cell in L2 equals 0 then
If Range (“L2”) = 0 Then
‘Cell B2 will be written x
Range (“B2”) = “x”
‘ If not then
Else
‘If cell L2 is less than 0 then
If Range ( “L2”) <0 Then
‘Cell B2 will be written merging x with cell L2
Range (“B2”) = “x” & Range (“L2”)
‘ Closes if at third part stage
End If
‘Closes if at stage the second part
End If
‘Closes if in the first part stage
End If
‘ The cell condition H2 is equal to 0
Case 0
‘And the cell in L2 is not equal to 0
If Range (“L2”) <> 0 Then
‘ B2 cell will be written equal to the cell on L2
Range (“B2”) = Range (“L2”)
‘If not then
Else
‘ and cell L2 equals 0 then
If Range (“L2″) = 0 Then
‘Cells on L2 will not be written anything
Range (” B2 “) =” ”
‘Closes the if function in the second part stage
End If
‘ Closes the if function in the first part stage
End If
‘ ng from 1
Case Is <1
‘And cell H2 is greater than 0 then
If Range (“L2″)> 0 Then
‘ Cells on B2 will be written merging between posts on cell H2 and with x + and cell L2
Range (” B2 “) = Range (” H2 “) &” x + “& Range (” L2 “)
‘if tidk then
Else
‘ And cell L2 equals 0 then
If Range (” L2 “) = 0 Then
‘Cell B2 will be written same as the merging of L2 and x
Range (“B2”) = Range (“H2”) & “x”
‘If not then
Else
‘ If cell L2 is less than 0 then
If Range (“L2”) <0 Then
‘ Cell B2 will be written merge written on H2, x and written on L2
Range (“B2”) = Range (“H2”) & “x” & Range (“L2”)
‘Closes the if program in the third stage
End If
‘ Closes program if the second phase
End If
‘Close the program if the first phase
End If
‘If condition in H2 greater than 1
Case is> 1
‘And if the cell is larger L2 0 then
If Range ( “L2”)> 0
then’cells B2 will be written merging
Range (“B2”) = Range (“H2”) & “x +” & Range (“L2”)
‘If not then
Else
‘ And if cell L2 is same with 0 then
If Range (“L2”) = 0 Then
‘Cells on B2 will be written merging H2 cells with x
Range (“B2”) = Range (“H2”) & “x”
‘ If not then
Else
‘ L2 is less than 0 then
If Range (“L2”) <0 Then
‘Cell B2 will be written merging cells H2, x and cell L2
Range (“B2”) = Range (“H2”) & “x” & Range (“L2 “)
‘Close the function if at this stage of the third section
End
If’Close the function if at this stage of the second section
End If
‘Close the function if at this stage of the first section
End
If’Close the function Select Case
End Select
‘Writing on the cell AE2 equals 0
Range (” AE2 “) = 0
‘Closes the added function1
End Sub
The above function can also be applied to a reduced value in the variable part of the variable, and the difference lies in Range (” H2 “) = Range (” H2 “) + 1 changes on positive symbol to negative form will be the Range (“H2”) = Range (“H2”) – 1. Demikain for the constant value, in the same way as in the variable part that distinguishes the H2 cell on the variable element while the cell L2 at the continuous region.
After you finish creating a VBAbased math game for Microsoft Excel and then tested to students in the classroom, so students can deduce from some examples of questions related to the equation of one variable.
Figure 4. Students Practicing Gaming Media in Microsoft Excel
Students try from several examples of the equations of a mathematical variable then practiced from the properties of counting operations so that students can deduce from the process through the math game.
Figure 5. Students Understood About Equations One Variable
When given the question of equalization one variable, students have understood the concept of the properties of addition and multiplication operations, thus displaying the right results. By providing a mathematical game, students tend to be more active in discussing with peers and actively giving opinions if there is a wrong, accurate calculation process.
Conclusion
Based on the results of research that VBAbased Math Games for Microsoft Excel can improve the ability of students to understand the junior high school and foster a sense of confidence students to work on the equation of one variable. By using mathematics learning media using VBA for Microsoft Excel, teachers can make props more practical and efficient. As well as helping teachers to deliver interactive images relating to math materials at school.
Acknowledgement
Thank you to IKIP Siliwangi who has provided the place and time to do research and provide research fund from internal LP2M IKIP Siliwangi grant so that this research can go well. And to the math study program IKIP Siliwangi which gives a chance time to use the Laboratory of mathematics tools that can provide examples of math media to be applied in the VBA for Excel junior high school for Excel.
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